The following list of websites is intended to assist scholars, teachers, and practitioners in the allied fields of garden design and garden and landscape history. Some of the sites allow the viewer to download images from the Internet.
American Landscape and Architectural Design 1850-1920: A Study Collection from the Harvard
This collection of approximately 2,800 lantern slides represents a historical view of American buildings and landscapes built during the period 1850–1920. It represents the work of Harvard faculty, such as Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., Bremer W. Pond, and James Sturgis Pray, as well as that of prominent landscape architects throughout the country.
American Society of Landscape Architects:
The ASLA is a national, professional organization for landscape architects. Its Web site provides information for new ASLA members, lists the organization’s chapters, and offers resources for students and the public in the areas of advocacy, events, and education.
Archive of American Gardens from the Smithsonian:
Also available as a set on Flickr:
The Archives of American Gardens (AAG), founded in 1987, contains approximately 80,000 photographic images and records that document over 6,300 gardens throughout the United States. Images in the archives, which date from the late-nineteenth century to the present, highlight such features as garden furniture and ornamentation, fountains, sculptures, fences and gates, parterres, and garden structures. Designs represented range from large Italianate estates to herb and rose gardens, cottage and patio gardens, and community gardens.
ArchNet is an international online community for architects, planners, urban designers, landscape architects, conservationists, and scholars, with a focus on Muslim cultures and civilizations.
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University:
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is a public arboretum that acts as both a park and research center. The Arboretum’s Landscape Institute offers interdisciplinary and practical courses in landscape design, history, and preservation.
ARTstor: A Nonprofit Digital Image Library for Education and Scholarship:
ARTstor is a searchable digital library of images in the arts, architecture, humanities, and social sciences. The Foundation for Landscape Studies has partnered with ARTstor to digitize and make public a slide collection of approximately 5,000 photographic images of landscapes from around the world.
Association of Professional Landscape Designers (APLD):
The goals of the APLD are to advance landscape design as an independent profession and to promote the recognition of landscape designers as highly qualified, dedicated professionals.
California Garden and Landscape History Society (CGLHS):
The CGLHS is an interdisciplinary group that encourages the study and preservation of California’s garden and cultural-landscape history.
Catena: Digital Archive of Historic Gardens and Landscapes:
Catena provides a searchable, typologically organized archive of digital images and educational material related to the history of the villa garden as a designed landscape.
The Center for Land Use Interpretation
The Center for Land Use Interpretation is a nonprofit education, art, and research organization dedicated to the increase and diffusion of information about how the nation’s lands are apportioned, utilized, and perceived.
The Central Park Conservancy:
This site offers a virtual park tour with historical information keyed to maps showing specific park locations.
This sites contains a bibliography listing studies in Western languages on the history and appreciation of gardens in China.
Conversing With Other Nations The Cultural Geography of Nineteenth Century Arboretums:
This study is the first general cultural history of the arboretum in Britain using case studies of different types of arboretums – public, semipublic, and private – to reveal their scientific, cultural, and social significance.
The Cultural Landscape Foundation (CLF)
The CLF encourages “stewardship through education.” The site includes searchable databases such as “What’s Out There,” “Landslide,” and “Pioneers,” which provide essays and images concerning a variety of cultural and designed landscapes. The site also offers interactive online exhibitions.
Dumbarton Oaks: Research Library and Collection:
Dumbarton Oaks is a research center dedicated to Byzantine, garden and landscape, and pre-Columbian studies. The site contains online resources and lists of publications produced by Dumbarton Oaks.
Federation of German Landscape Architects:
The Bund Deutscher Landschaftsarchitekten bdla (Federation of German Landscape Architects) is the professional association of landscape architects in Germany. Among other activities, the federation works on legal issues and public relations, serves as a network connecting landscape architects, and provides vocational training for its members.
Garden and Forest:
A joint project of the Library of Congress Preservation Reformatting Division, the University of Michigan Making of America project, and the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, this full, ten-volume run of Garden and Forest contains approximately 8,400 pages, including over 1,000 illustrations and 2,000 pages of advertisements. Each seven-to-eleven-page issue contains articles that are literary as well as scholarly and scientific, aimed at readers ranging from curious amateurs to professionals. The articles provide practical information on specific plants and horticulture in general as well as guidance on the design of gardens, the growth of trees, and the care and management of public and private grounds.
The Garden and Landscape Guide:
This site, which is oriented to the tourist, contains well-illustrated sections on garden history and theory, designers, and landscape architecture.
The Garden Conservancy:
The Garden Conservancy is dedicated to preserving and providing financial support for exceptional gardens. Its site includes the Preservation Projects Program, which lists gardens under the Conservancy’s stewardship and provides history, contact information, and images related to the gardens.
Historic American Buildings Survey-Historic American Engineering Records (HABS-HAER):
The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) are among the largest and most heavily used collections in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. Since 2000, documentation from the Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) has been added to the holdings. The collections document achievements in architecture, engineering, and design in the United States and its territories, covering a comprehensive range of building types and engineering technologies.
Historic American Landscapes Survey, Northern California Chapter (HALS-CA):
The HALS-CA, which includes drawings, written histories, and images, promotes the preservation and documentation of historic California landscapes. Its home on the Web provides an inventory of sites and images of specific sites such as Burdell Garden and Piedmont Way.
History of Landscape Architecture:
History of Landscape Architecture is a bibliographic research guide to UC Berkeley library and Web resources for the history of landscape architecture. Included are selected reference titles, historical surveys of landscape-architecture history, and strategies for locating periodical articles, books, and images.
Institute of Cultural Landscape Studies (ICLS), Harvard University:
This site offers information about the ICLS program at Harvard and a synopsis of the program’s projects from 1997 to 2003, including links to landscape histories, the practitioner’s roundtable, working landscape farms, and additional online resources.
International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS):
This site has an online database, a list of publications, links to libraries and documentation centers, and downloadable PDF files of scholarly papers delivered at ICOMOS symposia on historic gardens and landscapes.
International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA):
The IFLA represents landscape-architect associations worldwide. The federation coordinates the activities of various associations to address global issues. The site offers information for professionals, students, and the public.
International Union for Conservation of Nature World (IUCN):
IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to pressing environment and development challenges. It supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world, and brings governments, nongovernmental organizations, United Nations agencies, companies, and local communities together to develop and implement policy, laws, and best practice.
This site, which is maintained by Bowdoin College, is dedicated to the historic gardens of Japan, primarily those of Kyoto and its environs, including Nara. It contains links and bibliographic references, plus virtual tours of twenty-nine sites with photographic images keyed to various vantage points.
Kenneth Helphand’s course on the History of Landscape Architecture:
This Web site provides thematically organized images that accompany Helphand’s course on the history of landscape architecture.
Landscape Architecture Image Resource (LAIR)
Using the contributions of participating universities, LAIR provides a searchable database of landscape architecture images that may be downloaded.
The Landscape Institute:
The Landscape Institute is an educational charity and chartered body responsible for protecting, conserving, and enhancing the natural and built environment for the benefit of the public. Oriented toward contemporary practitioners, the Landscape Institute represents 6,000 members who include chartered landscape architects, academics, scientists, and students.
The Landscape Observatory of Catalonia:
The Landscape Observatory of Catalonia is a governmental advisory group that studies landscape history and preservation, particularly in Catalonia. The observatory’s external resources page contains a number of links to international sites that provide images related to landscape history. Additionally, the Gardens Dossier section provides links to several sites concerning historic gardens in Catalonia.
The Landscape Studies Podcast:
The Landscape Studies Podcast posts excerpts from new, peer-reviewed works in the field of landscape studies and encourages interdisciplinary discussion.
Landscape Studies In Upper Mesopotamia, University of Chicago:
The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago is an interdisciplinary research center whose goal is to integrate archaeological, textual, and art-historical data to understand the development and functioning of the ancient civilizations of the Near East from the earliest Holocene through the Medieval period. Its activities include archaeological excavations, artifact analyses, the development of new research methodologies, the stewardship of systematic museum collections, philological studies, historical research, and the development of dictionaries of ancient languages. This site provides links and references to papers and publications sponsored by the organization.
The Library of American Landscape History (LALH):
LALH is a nonprofit organization that encourages and facilitates the study of North American landscape history. Its site contains links, articles, online exhibitions, and bibliographies.
National Association for Olmsted Parks:
NAOP is dedicated to preserving the memory and legacy of Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. and his sons’ firm, Olmsted Brothers Landscape Architects. Along with information concerning publications and events, the site provides a searchable index of Olmsted’s plans, projects, correspondence, and drawings.
The National Register of Historic Places (US):
Currently there are 80,000 properties listed in the National Register. The searchable database on this site makes it possible to obtain information about their history and significance. In addition, the database contains a bibliography, photographs, and maps. A link to the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) Inventories of Historic Places on the Web offers access to more digitized files and downloadable narrative descriptions and photos.
New York City Department of Parks & Recreation:
The Explore Your Park section of this site contains interactive maps and virtual tours of New York City’s public parks.
Royal Oak Foundation:
This section of the Royal Oak Foundation’s Web site contains information about ten-week, residential fellowships based in England for individuals with a professional interest in the history, management, and conservation of historic landscapes and gardens.
The Society of Architectural Historians Landscape History Chapter:
This chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians encourages research on landscapes, gardening, and horticultural history, and preservation of landscapes and gardens. The site lists conference dates, event descriptions, and relevant publications.
The Society for Landscape Studies:
The Society for Landscape Studies aims to advance public education by promoting the study of landscape in all its aspects. The organization fosters interest in research and fieldwork; publishes the journal Landscape History; and holds conferences, seminars, and field meetings.
Over the last nineteen years this site has collected photographs of 529 archaeological sites (117 in the six national sections and 412 in the Tours section), focusing on Stonehenge, stone circles, dolmens, ancient standing stones, cairns, barrows, hill forts, and the archaeology of megalithic Europe.
The Trust for Public Land (TPL):
The TPL is a nonprofit conservation organization dedicated to preserving land as parks, community gardens, and other natural landscapes. Its Web site provides information on volunteering, research, and activism.
UNESCO World Heritage:
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification, protection, and preservation of cultural patrimony and significant natural landscapes around the world. This Web site contains a searchable list of World Heritage sites, PDF files of World Heritage reports, and an interactive global map that provides access to descriptions of many World Heritage properties.